ATP Studie und die Mikrostromtherapie
Kurze Zusammenfassung zur wohl meist zitierten Studie zum ATP und dem Mikrostrom
To achieve a maximum stimulatory effect on protein synthesis, minimum current levels of approx. 50 μA are required. The stimulating effect is maintained up to a value of about 1000 μA. At higher currents, however, electrolysis effects can impair metabolism. The voltages at the interfaces of platinum and stainless steel electrodes never exceed 1.5 V.
The application of a certain current means that only a small part is responsible for metabolic effects. This is particularly evident when the skin is connected to only one end of an electrode, while the other end floats freely in the buffer. In this system, the skin is not affected by the electrical currents, which obviously only flow through the buffer from one electrode to the other. Possible electrolytic effects are negligible at the low currents.
Electrostimulation appears to primarily and independently increase protein synthesis activity, although subsequent stimulation of amino acid transport leads to an additional increase in amino acid incorporation into proteins. The increased availability of free amino acids due to electrical stimulation provides an additional impetus to protein metabolism.
DNA synthesis is not affected by electrical stimulation, suggesting that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects on protein synthesis activity occur independently of the effects on transcription processes. Metabolic stimulation continues as long as the tissue remains viable.
One possible mechanism for the stimulatory effect of electric current on protein synthesis and amino acid transport is the increased formation of ATP caused by increased proton migration in response to electrical stimulation. During electrical stimulation, electrons on the cathodic side react with water molecules to form hydroxyl ions, while protons are formed on the anodic side. This creates a proton gradient between the anodic and cathodic interfaces and a potential gradient across the tissue and the medium. Therefore, the protons should migrate from the anode to the cathode under the influence of the electric field and the concentration difference. When the migrating protons reach the mitochondrial membrane-bound H+-ATPase, ATP is formed.